Cancer

8 Things to Know

By Daniel Grunspan
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.

Preventing cancer is the original and continuing problem for all multicellular life.
The cells in a tumor vary and compete with each other in a process of somatic selection
Ecological principles explain how cancers interact with microenvironments with implications for metastasis and how we can improve chemotherapy effectiveness.
Behavioral ecological principles explain competition and cooperation among cancer clones.
Natural selection explains why cancer is rare
Peto’s paradox explains why mice get more cancer than elephants that have 1000 times more cells.
Cancer rates increase due to novel environmental factors
Mutations are inevitable